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Maharashtra State Board HSC Biology Syllabus 2024 Download: Class 12 Biology Syllabus PDF

Maharashtra State Board HSC Biology Syllabus 2024 Download: Class 12 Biology Syllabus PDF – Maharashtra State Board has released Maharashtra State Board HSC Biology Class 12 Syllabus 2024 PDF on the official website @https://www.mahahsscboard.in/. In this article, you will find the latest and updated syllabus for the Maharashtra State Board HSC Biology Class 12 exam 2024.

Maharashtra State Board HSC Biology Syllabus for Class 12

Section I – BOTANY

Chapter 1 – Genetic Basis of Inheritance: 

Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.

Chapter 2 – Gene: its nature, expression and regulation: 

Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. DNA as genetic material, the structure of DNA as given by Watson and Crick’s model, DNA Packaging, semi-conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. 

RNA: General structure, types and functions. 

Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code, Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). 

Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application: 

Chapter 3 – Biotechnology: Process and Application : 

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): 

Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments, 

Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR). Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) 

Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare : 

Chapter 4 – Enhancement in Food Production

Plant Breeding 

Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency, 

Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), 

Callus Culture, Suspension Culture. Single Cell Protein. Biofortification.

Chapter 5 – Microbes in Human Welfare: 

Microbes in Household food processing. 

Microbes in Industrial Production. 

Microbes in Sewage Treatment.

Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.

Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. 

Microbes as Biofertilizers.

Unit 4: Plant Physiology : 

Chapter 6 – Photosynthesis

Autotrophic nutrition

Site of Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.

Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) 

Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) 

Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Law of limiting factors. 

Chapter 7 – Respiration 

ATP as currency of Energy

Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. 


Exchange of gases 

Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.

Significance of Respiration. 

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms : 

Chapter 8 – Reproduction in Plants

Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). 

Asexual reproduction; uniparental modesvegetative propagation, micropropagation 

Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower 

Development of male gametophyte, Structure of anatropous ovule. 

Development of female Gametophyte. 

Pollination: Types and Agencies. 

Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction. 

Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. 

Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit) 

Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit formation. 

Unit 6: Ecology and Environment 

Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I : Habitat and Niche

Ecosystems: Patterns, components, productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).

Ecological succession, Ecological servicescarbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house effect and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).

Section II – ZOOLOGY 

Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution : 

Chapter 10 – Origin and the Evolution of Life : 

Origin of Life: Early Earth, Spontaneous, assembly of organic compounds, 

Evolution: Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological Evidences, Mechanism of evolution; Gene flow and genetic drift; HardyWeinberg principle; Adaptive radiation. Origin and Evolution of Human being. 

Chapter 11 – Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 

The Chromosomal Theory. 


Linkage and Crossing Over.

Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). 

Sex Determination in Human being, birds, honey bee.Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter’s syndrome. 

Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application: 

Chapter 12- Genetic Engineering and Genomics 

DNA Finger Printing. 

Genomics and Human Genome Project. 

Biotechnological Applications in Health: 

Human insulin and vaccine production, 

Gene Therapy. Transgenic animals. 

Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare 

Chapter 13- Human Health and Diseases 

Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types, Vaccines, 

Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody Complex, Antigens on blood cells. 

Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ring worm). 

Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Cancer and AIDS. 

Chapter 14- Animal Husbandry 

Management of Farms and Farm Animals. 



Animal Breeding. 




Lac culture 

Unit 4: Human Physiology : 

Chapter 15- Circulation 

Blood composition and coagulation, Blood groups. 

Structure and pumping action of Heart. Blood Vessels. 

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. 

Heart beat and Pulse. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Cardiac output, Regulation of cardiac activity. 

Blood related disorders: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure. 

ECG, Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. 

Chapter 16- Excretion and osmoregulation

Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism. 

Excretory System. 

Composition and formation of urine. 

Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. 

Regulation of kidney function: reninangiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and Diabetes inspidus, role of other organs in excretion. 

Disorders; Kidney failure, Dialysis, Kidney stone (renal calculi). Transplantation. Uraemia, nephritis. 

Chapter 17- Control and Co-ordination

Nervous System 

Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord, brief idea about PNS and ANS. 

Transmission of nerve impulse. 

Reflex action. 

Sensory receptors (eye and ear), Sensory perception, general idea of other sense organs. 

Endocrine System 

Endocrine glands 

Hormones and their functions 

Mechanism of hormone action. 

Hormones as messengers and regulators. 

Hormonal imbalance and diseases:

Common disorders (Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease) 

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms : 

Chapter 18- Human Reproduction

Reproductive system in male and female. 

Histology of testis and ovary. 

Reproductive cycle. 

Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation. 

Embryo development up to three germinal layers. 

Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). 

Reproductive health-birth control, Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.MTP, Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologiesIVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). 

Unit 6: Ecology and Environment : 

Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II : 

Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. 

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