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Basics of Sentences and Parts of Speech

Basics of Sentences and Parts of Speech

Dear Students, you will read Basics of Sentences and Parts of Speech topics here.

What is a Word?

A word is called as an element of a sentence that is having a mean. It is divided into two parts. in the first part is known as the root  and second part is Prefixes/Suffixes

  • Root – Main part of a Word. for Example Dog
  • Prefix – When we add a word at the beginning of the root word. for Examples: re, dis, over, un
  • Suffix – When we add a word at the end of the root word. Ex: -s, -eer, -en, -ate, -ion

We use Prefix and Suffix in order to indicate things such as given noun is singular/plural or the verb is related to Past tense and so on.

Some Examples of suffix: (i) root- help; Suffix- -er in helper

(ii) root- celebrate; Suffix- ion in celebration.

Some Example of prefix: (i) root- appear;   Prefix- dis in disappear

(ii) root- appoint;   Prefix- dis in disappoint.

What is a sentence?

A sentence is known as a set of words that completes in itself.

/* Sentence, Collection of words that gives a meaning. */

Parts of Sentence

A sentence is divided into the following parts. they are-

(i) Subject

(ii) Predicate

(iii) Object

(iv) Indirect Object

(v) Complement

We will discuss here about each part one by one.

(i) Subject– The subject can be called the person, place, or thing that performs the action of the sentence. it represents what or whom the sentence is about.

/* वाक्य का वो भाग (व्यक्ति, स्थान या चीज़) जो कोई काम कर रहा है या जिसके बारे में वाक्य में बात की जा रही है.*/

For Example – Ram is clever.

Here in this sentence, we are talking about the Ram. Hence Ram is the subject.

(ii) PredicateThe predicate is known as a part of a sentence that has a verb (something which is done) and points something about the subject. The predicate works as the entire part of the sentence except for the subject.

/* यह एक वाक्य का हिस्सा है जिसमें एक क्रिया है (कुछ जो किया जाता है) और विषय के बारे में कुछ बताते हुए। विषय को छोड़कर वाक्य का संपूर्ण भाग पूरा होता है*/

Example : Ram is clever.

Here in this sentence, we are talking about the Ram. So Ram is the subject. Is clever points something more about the Ram, so “is clever” is called as the predicate in a sentence.

(iii) Object- The part that the action is being done. in other words, the part receives the action of the sentence.

/* यह उस वाक्य का हिस्सा है जिस पर कार्रवाई की जा रही है यानी यह वाक्य की कार्रवाई को प्राप्त करता है।*/

How to identify the object in a sentence?– The simplest method to classify the object is to ask the question of who or what after the verb.

Example: Pooja eats Pizza.

Here Pooja is the subject who does something. She eats. But What does she eats? She eats Pizza. Therefore, Pizza is the object.

/* जो काम कर रहा है वो सब्जेक्ट होता है. जेसे इस उदाहरण में Pooja is eating. मतलब, इस वाक्य में पूजा subject के र्रोप में काम कर रही है |

जिसपे काम हो रहा है उसे Object (ऑब्जेक्ट) कहा जाता है इस वाक्य में जिससे खाया जा रहा है वो Object के रूप में काम कर रहा है | उदाहरण में, Pizza एक object है | */

(iv) Indirect Object- There can be two objects in a sentence. in which, One is called a direct object and second is called as an indirect object. The indirect object symbolises to whom or for whom the action of the sentence is being done.

/*एक वाक्य में कभी-कभी दो ऑब्जेक्ट हो सकते हैं। इनमें से एक प्रत्यक्ष वस्तु है और दूसरी अप्रत्यक्ष वस्तु है। अप्रत्यक्ष वस्तु किसके लिए या किसके लिए सजा की कार्रवाई का प्रतीक है।*/

Example: Pooja is building a house for her family.

Subject: Pooja (because she builds a house)- (जो काम कर रहा है).

Direct Object: house (जिसपर काम हो रहा है)- builds what?

Indirect Object: his family (किसके लिए)- for whom?

(v) Complement- A subject complement can rename or represents the subject. It can be a noun, pronoun, or adjective. Complement is regularly followed by – to be, is, are.

Example: My phone is dirty.

Here Phone is the subject. dirty represents the subject and is the complement.

Parts of Speech

Parts of speech are known as the building blocks in English Grammar. The part of speech shows how the word in any sentence, how it functions in meaning and grammatically within the sentence.

When you make any sentences, you utilise different types of words and each word is functioning for a purpose in that sentence

There are Eight parts of Speech

(i) noun

(ii) pronoun

(iii) verb

(iv) adjective

(v) adverb

(vi) preposition

(vii) conjunction

(viii) interjection

(i) Noun– A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or an idea. Nouns can function as a different part of sentence, within a sentence

/* संज्ञा किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान, वस्तु या विचार का नाम है। संज्ञा वाक्य के एक अलग हिस्से के रूप में कार्य कर सकते हैं, एक वाक्य के भीतर; उदाहरण के लिए, एक संज्ञा एक विषय, प्रत्यक्ष वस्तु, अप्रत्यक्ष वस्तु, पूरक हो सकती है। उदाहरण: कुत्ता, बिल्ली, सुशांत।*/

examples – it can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, complement.

Examples: phone, fish, rakesh, Ram.

(ii) Pronoun– A word that replaces of noun. Examples He, you, we, She, It, They.

/* यह एक शब्द है जो संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयोग किया जाता है। */

Example: Amrish Puri was a good actor. He acted in many hit movies.

Here Amrish Puri is the noun (person) and he is pronoun which is being used in place of Amrish Puri.

(iii) Verb– it indicates an action, state or being.

Examples : work, dance, sing, play,cry.

/*जो काम किया जा रहा हो */

Example: Yovraj Singh hit six consecutive sixes against England. (here Action is – hit six)

Will you go to party?

(iv) Adjective–it attaches something extra to noun/pronoun. we can say that it represents the noun/ pronoun.

Example: The cute girl brought me a very long letter

Here cute describes the noun girl (person) and long describes the noun letter (thing).

(v) Adverb– It appends to the meaning of the verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It explains or transforms a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. it is used at the end.

ly- Example: quickly, silently.

Example: he sings beautifully.

Here sings is a verb and beautifully is an adverb. How does he sing?- Sings beautifully.

(vi) Preposition– It associates a noun to another word. It appears before a noun/pronoun and relates it to another part of the sentence.

for Ex: to, at, from.

(vii) Conjunction- It combines sentences, words, phrases, or clauses.

For Examples: and, but, when.

Example: he saw me while I was playing cricket.

(viii) Interjection- a word that is used to describe emotion. Examples : Oh!, Wow!, Oops!

The parts of speech

Part of SpeechObjectiveExamplesSentences
NounPerson, place to thingPhone, computer, Rajasthan, tableNarendra Modi is the Prime Minister of India.
PronounReplaces a nounit, she, you, he theyRam is a good friend. He likes to play cricket.
VerbAction, state or beingplay, dance, enjoy, go, buy, writePooja is playing tennis.
Adjectiveexplains a nounGood, long, bigPooja has long hairs.
Adverbexplains a verb, adjectiveQuickly, silentlyRobin laughed loudly to attract his attention.
Prepositionassociates a noun to another wordTo, at, oni will meet in March.
Conjunctioncombines sentences, words, phrases, or clausesAnd, but, whenPooja likes cats but I don’t like dogs.
InterjectionShort exclamationOh!, ouch!Hi!. what are you doing?


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